Superoxide dismutase enzyme and thiol antioxidants in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva

Shermin Karim, Pratibha P.K, Shobha Kamath, G. Subraya Bhat, Ullas Kamath, Babi Dutta, Naveen Sharma, B Archana, K. Mahalinga Bhat, Vasudev Guddattu


Background: The possibility of impaired antioxidant status and so increased oxidative damage in
periodontal disease is being conjectured. The present randomized controlled study was carried out
with the objective of analyzing the activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme and thiol antioxidants
in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva as indicators of response to periodontal therapy.
Materials and Methods: Subjects were screened and randomly divided into three groups: 23
periodontally healthy controls, 24 with gingivitis, and 23 with periodontitis. Based on the clinical
attachment levels, the periodontitis group was further divided into subgroups, including mild, moderate,
and severe periodontitis. GCF and saliva samples were collected for estimation of superoxide dismutase
and thiol antioxidant concentrations at baseline and 15 days after nonsurgical treatment. Intragroup
comparisons were statistically analyzed using repeated measures analysis of covariance (P value <0.05).
Results: Superoxide dismutase was present in greater quantities in the GCF compartment
(100.32±3.67 U/0.5 mL) than in saliva (39.99±3.52 U/0.5 mL), with elevated levels in mild and
moderate subgroups as compared with severe periodontitis. Thiol concentrations were comparable
in these media, 14.43±1.57 micromol /L in GCF and 15.09±2.26 micromol/L in saliva. Following
treatment, superoxide dismutase and thiol antioxidant concentrations significantly improved in all
the patient groups.
Conclusion: The reduction of the inflammatory response following therapy resulted in improved
antioxidant profiles in both the GCF and salivary compartments.
Key Words: Antioxidants, gingival crevicular fluid, gingivitis, periodontitis, saliva, superoxide

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