Effect of smoking on oral pigmentation and its relationship with periodontal status

Jyothi Tadakamadla, Santhosh Kumar, Anand Nagori, Harish Tibdewal, Prabu Duraiswamy, Suhas Kulkarni


Background: To assess the effect of smoking on lip and gingival pigmentation and also to assess the relationship of pigmentation with periodontal parameters.

Materials and Methods: 109 smokers and an equal number of control subjects who were nonsmokers in the age range of 35 – 44 years comprised the study sample. All the participants were assessed for pigmentation on lip and gingiva and a total periodontal status examination was done with measurements on gingival bleeding, probing depth and loss of attachment at six points in each tooth.

Results: Melanin pigmentation on lips and gingiva was observed in all the smokers except for one who did not exhibit gingival pigmentation. Significantly greater number of smokers exhibited pigmentation than nonsmokers. Gingival bleeding on probing, probing depth and loss of attachment differed significantly in relation to gingival and lip pigmentation.

Conclusions: Oral pigmentation was widespread and more commonly observed in smokers than nonsmokers and there was a relationship between pigmentation and periodontal deterioration.

Key Words: Oral mucosa, pigmentation, smoking, periodontium

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