The biology of distraction osteogenesis for correction of mandibular and craniomaxillofacial defects: A review

Subodh Shankar Natuا, Iqbal Ali, Sarwar Alam, Kolli Yada Giri, Anshita Agarwal, Vrishali Ajit Kulkarni


Limb lengthening by distraction osteogenesis was



fi Key Words:

Biomechanics, callostasis, distraction histogenesis, distraction osteogenesis,mechanical strain, osteodistraction, vector 

ed the physiologic and mechanical factors governing


successful regeneration of bone formation. Distraction osteogenesis is a new variation of more

traditional orthognathic surgical procedure for the correction of dentofacial deformities. It is most

commonly used for the correction of more severe deformities and syndromes of both the maxilla

and the mandible and can also be used in children at ages previously untreatable. The basic technique

includes surgical fracture of deformed bone, insertion of device, 5-7 days rest, and gradual separation

of bony segments by subsequent activation at the rate of 1 mm per day, followed by an 8-12 weeks

consolidation phase. This allows surgeons, the lengthening and reshaping of deformed bone.

The aim of this paper is to review the principle, technical considerations, applications and limitations

of distraction osteogenesis. The application of osteodistraction offers novel solutions for surgicalorthodontic

management of developmental anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton as bone may

be molded into different shapes along with the soft tissue component gradually thereby resulting

in less relapse.

rst described in 1905. The technique did notgain wide acceptance until Gavril Ilizarov identi


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