Estimation of serum β2-microglobulin in potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: A clinicopathological study

Anand Pratap Singh, Nitin Kumar, Manthena Srinivasa Raju, Narendra Nath Singh, Suma Gundareddy Nagendrareddy


Background: Tumor markers are substances, which quantitatively changes in serum, during the

tumor development, one such tumor marker is serum β2-microglobulin (β2-m). The aim of this

study was to establish the role of β2-m as a biochemical parameter for diagnosis and prognosis

of oral carcinoma by estimation of serum β2-m levels in potentially malignant lesions, conditions,

and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 48 subjects (16 control, 8 oral submucous

fi brosis, 8 oral leukoplakia, and 16 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients of different stages),

conducted at department of Oral Medicine, Kothiwal Dental College, Moradabad, India. Under

aseptic precautions, 5 ml venous blood was drawn and serum was separated. Estimation of β2-m

level in serum was carried out by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The data were analyzed

by using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 17.0) software. Cases and controls were

tested for statistical signifi cance with one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey’s HSD. Values of P < 0.05

were considered signifi cant.

Results: The mean serum β2-m level in the control group was 1.173 ± 0.059, in potentially malignant

lesions/conditions group was 1.688 ± 0.137 and in oral squamous cell carcinoma group was 2.835

± 0.0313. This progressive increase in serum β2-m level was found to be highly signifi cant (P value

< 0.001). Results of Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed β2-m as a 100% sensitive

and specifi c biomarker for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Conclusion: The present study establishes β2-m as a specifi c biological tumor marker for diagnostic

and prognostic evaluation of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Key Words: β2-microglobulin, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, squamous cell carcinoma,tumor markers

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