Is periodontal health a predictor of drug-induced gingival overgrowth? A cross-sectional study

Ruchi Banthia, Santosh Gupta, Priyank Banthia, Pallavi Singh, Sapna Raje, Navkiran Kaur


Background: Gingival overgrowth is a common side-effect of amlodipine regimen on the oral
cavity. There is controversy regarding the cause and effect relationship of periodontal health and
drug induced gingival overgrowth. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate and to assess
the relationship between the periodontal health and the onset and severity of gingival overgrowth
in hypertensive patients receiving amlodipine.
Materials and Methods: A total of 99 known hypertensive patients on amlodipine regimen
were included in this study. Probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were
noted on four sites of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth. Gingival enlargement scores were
assessed for each patient by employing the hyperplastic index. Oral hygiene status was evaluated
using the calculus index (CI). Patients were divided into H, E and L groups based on their periodontal
status and responders and non-responders based on their hyperplastic index scores. Differences
in means of different periodontal variables in different groups were tested for signifi cance by using
ANOVA and unpaired Student t-test. Pearson’s correlation coeffi cient was calculated to assess the
correlation between different variables. For all analyses, P < 0.05 was considered to be signifi cant.
Results: All the periodontal parameters were statistically highly signifi cant (P = 0.00) amongst H,
E and L groups and between responders and non-responders. Statistically highly signifi cant Pearson
correlation coeffi cients were found between mean PPD and mean hyperplastic score, mean CAL
and mean hyperplastic score and mean calculus and mean hyperplastic score.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated a defi nite association between periodontal health
and development and severity of amlodipine-induced gingival overgrowth
Key Words: Amlodipine, drug-induced gingival overgrowth, oral hygiene, periodontal disease

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