Characteristics and relationship of periodontal disease with juvenile idiopathic and rheumatoid arthritis

Surena Vahabi, Abdolrahman Rostamian, Ghazaleh Baniebrahimi


Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most prevalent chronic infl ammatory disease of

the joints. It is correlated with periodontal disease due to similar factors that exist in both diseases.

The present study assessed the relationship of periodontal disease with RA and juvenile idiopathic

arthritis (JIA).

Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 30 RA and 30 JIA patients along with

similar number of matched controls were selected among patients referred to Imam Khomeini

Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Periodontal parameters including pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment

level (CAL), O’Leary and Bay plaque index (PI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were determined

in cases and controls. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, number of painful and infl amed joints and

severity of disease were evaluated in RA and JIA patients. Mann-Whitney U-test nonparametric,

Spearman and Pearson’s correlation coeffi cients, and Chi-square tests were used as statistical

analysis (α = 0.05).

Results: PD (4.17 vs. 3.6 mm; P < 0.0001), CAL (4.89 vs. 4.18 mm; P < 0.002), percentage of sites

with PD >4 mm (58.83% vs. 44.33%; P < 0.002), percentage of sites with CAL >3 mm (74.13% vs.

64.4%; P < 0.001), percentage of sites with BOP (9.67% vs. 6.87%; P < 0.0001) and PI index (85.73% vs.

80.63%; P < 0.0001) were signifi cantly higher in RA patients than controls. In this group, direct

and signifi cant correlations were found between serologic fi ndings, disease severity and number

of painful and infl amed joints with periodontal factors. In JIA patients, no signifi cant relationships

were found between JIA fi ndings and periodontal parameters.

Conclusion: Considering the limitations of this study, there was a relationship between RA and

periodontal disease. Severity of periodontal disease increases in patients with RA, while no increased

risk of periodontal disease or its severity was observed among JIA patients.

Key Words: Juvenile, rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis, case-control studies

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