Determination of salivary urea and uric acid of patients with halitosis

Faezeh Khozeimeh, Nakisa Torabinia, Shirin Shahnaseri, Hooman Shafaee, Seyed Amir Mousavi


Background: Halitosis is the presence of unpleasant or foul smelling breath. The origin of halitosis
may be related to both systemic and oral conditions, but a large percentage of cases, about 90%,
is generally related to an oral cause. The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of
urea and uric acid in patients with halitosis and people without halitosis.
Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, concentration of urea and uric acid was
compared between two groups: (1) persons suffering halitosis (2) control group without halitosis.
Each group includes fifty patients. Unstimulated saliva was collected in both groups. Then,
concentration of urea, uric acid, and creatinine was determined. The results were statistically analyzed
with SPSS software version 14 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) by t‑test ( = 0.05).
Results: Results showed that salivary urea and uric acid concentration in halitosis group were
significantly greater than control group (P < 0.05). Salivary creatinine concentration in halitosis
group was significantly lower compared to control group (P < 0.05). Salivary urea and uric acid
concentration to creatinine ratios were higher in halitosis group than control group, and significant
differences between them were existed (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: According to the results, urea and uric acid concentration show increase in patient
suffering halitosis, and this increase may result in oral malodor.
Key Words: Halitosis, saliva, urea, uric acid

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