Association of macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene polymorphisms with chronic periodontitis in a South Eastern Iranian population

Zahra Heidari, Hamidreza Mahmoudzadeh‑Sagheb, Mohammad Hashemi, Somayeh Ansarimoghaddam, Bita Moudi, Nadia Sheibak


Background: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key proinflammatory mediator. It
plays a vital role in immune response against the oral disease. MIF is a regulator of innate immunity, and
bacterial antigens can stimulate serum level of this protein. In experimental gingivitis, the expression level
of MIF increases and this increment positively correlates with oral plaque index. The single nucleotide
polymorphisms in the gene encoding the MIF protein can control the function of MIF. The aim of the
present study was a clarification of the associations between MIF‑173 G/C, MIF 95 bp, and 189 bp
insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms and chronic periodontitis (CP) compared with healthy controls.
Materials and Methods: This case–control study was carried out on 210 CP patients and 100
normal subjects. MIF‑173 G/C and MIF 95 bp and 189 bp I/D polymorphisms were genotyped,
using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and PCR,
respectively. Allele and genotype frequencies of the variants were compared between patients and
controls using Chi‑square. test. The value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The study findings showed that MIF‑173 G/C polymorphism, especially the C allele
increased the risk of CP. The 95‑bp I/D polymorphism was not associated with CP and the 185‑bp
I/D variant was not polymorphic in our population.
Conclusion: Therefore, MIF‑137 G/C variant increased the risk of CP in the South East of the
Iranian population. In other words, polymorphisms in MIF gene influence clinical outcome of CP
infection and influence the susceptibility to disease. Further studies with larger sample sizes and
different ethnicities are required to validate our findings.
Key Words: Chronic periodontitis, gene, Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors, migration
inhibitory factor, polymorphism

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