Correlation of Vitamin D status and orthodontic‑induced external apical root resorption

Azita Tehranchi, Azin Sadighnia, Farnaz Younessian, Amir H. Abdi, Armin Shirvani


Background: Adequate Vitamin D is essential for dental and skeletal health in children and adult. The
purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of serum Vitamin D level with external‑induced
apical root resorption (EARR) following fixed orthodontic treatment.
Materials and Methods: In this cross‑sectional study, the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (defined
by25‑hydroxyvitamin‑D) was determined in 34 patients (23.5% male; age range 12–23 years; mean
age 16.63 ± 2.84) treated with fixed orthodontic treatment. Root resorption of four maxillary
incisors was measured using before and after periapical radiographs (136 measured teeth) by means
of a design‑to‑purpose software to optimize data collection. Teeth with a maximum percentage
of root resorption (%EARR) were indicated as representative root resorption for each patient.
A multiple linear regression model and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to assess the
association of Vitamin D status and observed EARR. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The Pearson coefficient between these two variables was determined about 0.15 (P = 0.38).
Regression analysis revealed that Vitamin D status of the patients demonstrated no significant
statistical correlation with EARR, after adjustment of confounding variables using linear regression
model (P > 0.05).
Conclusion: This study suggests that Vitamin D level is not among the clinical variables that are
potential contributors for EARR. The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency does not differ in patients
with higher EARR. These data suggest the possibility that Vitamin D insufficiency may not contribute
to the development of more apical root resorption although this remains to be confirmed by
further longitudinal cohort studies.
Key Words: 25‑Hydroxycalciferol, orthodontics, root resorption, Vitamin D

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