Association of vitamin D receptor BsmI, TaqI, FokI, and ApaI polymorphisms with susceptibility of chronic periodontitis: A systematic review and meta‑analysis based on 38 case–control studies

Fatemeh Mashhadiabbas, Hossein Neamatzadeh, Rezvan Nasiri, Elnaz Foroughi, Soudabeh Farahnak, Parisa Piroozmand, Mahta Mazaheri, Masoud Zare‑Shehneh


Background: There has been increasing interest in the study of the association between Vitamin D
receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and risk of chronic periodontitis. However, the results remain
inconclusive. To better understand the roles of VDR polymorphisms (BsmI, TaqI, FokI, and ApaI) in
chronic periodontitis susceptibility, we conducted this systematic review and meta‑analysis.
Materials and Methods: The PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science database were
systemically searched to determine all the eligible studies about VDR polymorphisms and risk of
chronic periodontitis up to April 2017. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were
used to evaluate the associations between VDR polymorphisms and chronic periodontitis risk.
All the statistical analyses were performed by Comprehensive Meta‑Analysis. All P values were
two‑tailed with a significant level at 0.05.
Results: Finally, a total of 38 case–control studies in 19 publications were identified which
met our inclusion criteria. There are ten studies with 866 chronic periodontitis cases and 786
controls for BsmI, 16 studies with 1570 chronic periodontitis cases and 1676 controls for
TaqI, five studies with 374 chronic periodontitis cases and 382 controls for FokI, and seven
studies with 632 chronic periodontitis cases and 604 controls for ApaI. Overall, no significant
association was observed between VDR gene BsmI, TaqI, FokI, and ApaI polymorphisms and
risk of chronic periodontitis in any genetic model. Subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity
suggested a significant association between BsmI polymorphism and chronic periodontitis risk
in the Caucasian subgroup under allele model (A vs. G: OR = 1.747, 95% CI = 1.099–2.778,
P = 0.018). Further, no significant associations were observed when stratified by Hardy–Weinberg
equilibrium status for BsmI, TaqI, and ApaI.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that BsmI, TaqI, FokI, and ApaI polymorphisms in the VDR gene
might not be associated with risk of chronic periodontitis in overall population.
Key Words: Chronic periodontitis, meta‑analysis, polymorphism, Vitamin D receptor

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