Effect of Sudarshan Kriya Pranayama on periodontal status and human salivary beta‑defensin‑2: An interventional study

R. Ananthalakshmi, Jaideep Mahendra, P. Jayamathi, Little Mahendra, Nashra Kareem, S. Subramaniam


Background: Yogic stretching (asana) has been proven to have an effect on salivary human
beta‑defensin‑2 (HBD‑2) concentration, which is an antimicrobial peptide and is an inflammatory
marker in periodontal disease. Sudarshan Kriya Pranayama (SKP) is a part of yoga which involves
rhythmic breathing. Hence, we aim to evaluate the periodontal parameters and to estimate the
salivary HBD‑2 level before and after SKP program in periodontitis individuals.
Materials and Methods: An interventional study was designed and individuals were divided into
three groups: Group I – healthy periodontium, Group II – chronic gingivitis, and Group III – chronic
periodontitis. SKP was the interventional tool. The clinical parameters such as plaque index (PI),
gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and salivary HBD‑2
level were analyzed at baseline and 90 days after the SKP practice. Enzyme‑linked immunosorbent
assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate salivary HBD‑2. McNemar’s Chi‑square, Paired samples t‑test,
and one‑way ANOVA were used to analyze the results.
P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Following the SKP intervention, the clinical parameters such as PI and GI improved
significantly in all the groups (P < 0.001); however, Group III showed a significant reduction as
compared to the other groups. The mean baseline salivary HBD‑2 levels of Group I, Group II,
and Group III were 91.78 ng/μl, 110.22 ng/μl, and 157.63 ng/μl which was further decreased to
95.22 ng/μl, 98.22 ng/μl, and 132.88 ng/μl, respectively, following SKP intervention (P < 0.001).
However, Group III had a higher HBD‑2 level at 90th day as compared to other groups.
Conclusion: There was an improvement in PI and GI with a decrease in salivary HBD‑2 in chronic
periodontitis patients following SKP. Hence, SKP can be considered as an adjunct to treatment
modality in patients with periodontal disease.
Key Words: beta-defensins, Human, periodontal disease, yoga

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