Anxiety, depression, and oral health: A population‑based study in Southeast of Iran

Tayebeh Malek Mohammadi, Amin Sabouri, Salehe Sabouri, Hamid Najafipour


Background: Depression and anxiety are two psychosocial illnesses that mostly are comorbid.
The prevalence of these diseases is increasing worldwide. Both can affect general health also oral
and dental health. The effects can be physiological and behavioral. Patients with these disorders
are not willing to keep oral hygiene. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association
between depression/anxiety and oral health indices in the 15–75‑year‑old population of Kerman.
Materials and Methods: This cross‑sectional study recruited 5900 people aged 15–75 years
through one‑stage cluster sampling (Kerman coronary artery disease risk factors study, KERCADRS).
Data were collected through beck questionnaires for anxiety and depression and clinical
examinations. Oral health indices including decayed, missing, filled teeth, gingival index (GI), and
community periodontal index (CPI) were also measured. Data were analyzed by SPSS 21 software.
Chi‑square, t‑test and regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between the
variables. P ≤0.05 was considered as the level of statistical significance.
Results: In the study, 1975 (33.6%) of patients showed moderate‑to‑severe anxiety and 3502 (59.5%)
got the scores as depressed. There was a significant difference between GI and CPI indices of the
normal and depressed group (P < 0.01), but the difference in the anxious and normal group was
not statistically significant (P > 0.05).
Conclusion: The results of the study showed a significant relationship between depression and
oral health indices but not with anxiety. Therefore, the present study suggests that more attention
should be paid to the oral health of people with a history of depression.
Key Words: Anxiety, dental caries, depression, oral health, periodontal diseases

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