Cartilage tissue formation from human adipose‑derived stem cells via herbal component (Avocado/soybean unsaponifiables) in scaffold‑free culture system

Arefeh Basiri, Batool Hashemibeni, Mohammad Kazemi, Ali Valiani, Maryam Aliakbari, Nazem Ghasemi


Background: The use of stem cells, growth factors, and scaffolds to repair damaged tissues is a new
idea in tissue engineering. The aim of the present study is the investigation of Avocado/soybean (A/S)
effects on chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose‑derived stem cells (hADSCs) in micromass
culture to access cartilage tissue with high quality.
Materials and Methods: In this an experimental study After hADSCs characterization,
chondrogenic differentiation was induced using transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF‑β1)
(10 ng/ml) and different concentrations (5, 10, and 20 µg/ml) of A/S in micromass culture. The
efficiency of A/S on specific gene expression (types I, II, and X collagens, SOX9, and aggrecan) was
evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, histological study was done using
hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue staining all data were analyzed using one‑way analysis of
variance (ANOVA) and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Results: The results of this study indicated that A/S can promote chondrogenic differentiation in a
dose‑dependent manner. In particular, 5 ng/ml A/S showed the highest expression of type II collagen,
SOX9, and aggrecan which are effective and important markers in chondrogenic differentiation. In
addition, the expression of types I and X collagens which are hypertrophic and fibrous factors in
chondrogenesis is lower in present of 5 ng/ml A/S compared with TGF‑β1 group (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover,
the sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix and the presence of chondrocytes within
lacuna were more prominent in 5 ng/ml A/S group than other groups.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that A/S similar to TGF‑β1 is able to facilitate the chondrogenic
differentiation of hADSCs and do not have adverse effects of TGF‑β1. Thus, TGF‑β1 can be replaced
by A/S in the field of tissue engineering.


Adult stem cells, cell culture techniques, tissue engineering

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