Risk factors for anterior open bite: A case–control study

Suellen de Lima Mendes, Isabella Lima Arrais Ribeiro, Ricardo Dias de Castro, Vitor Marques Filgueiras, Tânia Braga Ramos, Rosa Helena Wanderley Lacerda


Background: Anterior open bite (AOB) is noteworthy because it is a complex dysplasia, and
clinical studies on this malocclusion are usually epidemiological studies or experimental models
with small samples and no control group, which renders the data on AOB incomplete and therefore
inconclusive. The objective this study was to assess the risk factors involved in developing AOB.
Materials and Methods: A case–control study was provided with a total of 96 lateral
cephalometric radiographs of male and female patients aged between 8 and 14 years were used,
regardless of facial type. The dependent variable was the presence or absence of AOB, which divided
the participants into case and control groups, respectively; these groups were matched for gender
and age. The case and control groups data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential analysis by
binary logistic regression using at the 5% significance level
Results: The occurrence of AOB was associated with the presence of deleterious oral habits (P = 0.014;
Chi‑square test) and was approximately three times (odds ratio = 3.04) more likely to occur in
participants with AOB. No significant association between the presence of mouth breathing and the
occurrence of AOB was found (P = 0.151; Chi‑square test). The odds associated with tongue interposition
were 10.51 times higher than those of participants with no such deglutition. The odds associated with
the dolichofacial pattern were 5.74 times those of participants with a nondolichofacial pattern.
Conclusion: Tongue interposition and dolichocephalic facial pattern were risk factors for developing


Facial, habits, head, nasopharynx, oropharynx

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