Aetiology and Severity of Gingival Recession in an Adult Population Sample in Greece

Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos


Background: Gingival recession is the most common and undesirable condition of the gingiva. The aim of study was to investigate the aetiology and severity of gingival recession in a Greek adult population sample.    

Methods: The study was performed on 165 males and 179 females, 18-68 years old who sought dental treatment in a private dental practice and showed gingival recession. All subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding their oral hygiene habits such as the type of toothbrush, frequency of brushing and method of brushing. The association between gingival recession and the following parameters was assessed: plaque score, gingival score and tooth position. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using chi-square test (α = 0.05).

Results: The majority (79.4%) of the patients showed grade I gingival recession and 15.3% showed grade II gingival recession. The maxillary 1st and 2nd molars (35.3%) and the mandibular 1st and 2nd molars (28.7%) were the teeth most frequently affected by root surface exposure. Patients with sub-gingival calculus, bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation (P < 0.05), malpositioned teeth (P < 0.001), horizontal brushing method, medium type of toothbrush (P < 0.001) and brushing once daily (P < 0.001) appeared to be the most common precipitating aetiological factor for gingival recession.

Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, gingival recession was the result of more than one factor acting together. Horizontal brushing method, usage of medium type toothbrush and tooth brushing once daily were found to be more associated with gingival recession.

Keywords: Etiology, Gingival recession, Millers’ classification.

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