Effect of Smoking on Gingival Recession

Seyed Ali Banihashemrad, Kazem Fatemi, Mohammad Hasan Najafi


Background: Gingival recession refers to apical migration of the gingival margin. Smoking is one of
the most important risk factors for periodontitis that affects the prevalence, extent and severity of
disease. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of smoking on gingival recession.
Methods: Fifty smokers and 55 non-smokers took part in this cross-sectional study. Gingival recession
on buccal and palatal surfaces of all teeth was measured. In addition, the relationship between
the gingival recession and the following factors was evaluated: educational level, age, number of
cigarettes used per day, plaque control methods, the age at which smoking started and plaque index.
The data were analyzed using t-test and the coefficient of correlation.
Results: According to data analysis, the smoker subjects had a significantly greater mean recession
than non-smokers. There was a positive relationship between gingival recession and the number of
cigarettes used per day, duration of use and plaque index. There was a negative significant relationship
between gingival recession and plaque control method, as well as educational level.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that smoking causes gingival recession, possibly via
alteration in immune response and topical changes such as decreasing gingival circulation.
Keywords: Gingival recession, periodontitis, smoking

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