Comparison of cell viability and morphology of a human osteoblastlike cell line (SaOS-2) seeded on various bone substitute materials: An in vitro study

Nader Ayobian-Markazi, T. Fourootan, M. J. Kharazifar


Background: Many studies have shown favorable results following the use of different bone graft
materials. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of four different bone
graft materials regarding cell viability and morphology of Human osteoblast-like cells (SaOS-2) in vitro.
Materials and Methods: The effects of Bio-Oss®, Tutodent®, Osteon®, and Cerasorb® were
studied on the human osteoblast-like cell line to evaluate various parameters. Human osteoblastlike
cells were seeded onto the mentioned bone substitute materials (BSMs). Cell differentiation;
cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the seeded cells were evaluated by means of
scanning electron microscopy, cell viability test and phase contrast microscopy Analysis of variance
(ANOVA). Tamhane´s post-hoc, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and Dunn’s Test were used. The results were
considered to be statistically significant at P<0.05.
Results: The control group (SaOS-2 cells which were incubated in Dulbecco Modified Eagle Medium
without any kind of bone graft materials) had the highest level of cell viability (P<0.001), followed
by Tutodent®, Osteon®, Cerasorb®, and Bio-Oss®. There was no significant difference in MTT assay
results between Tutodent® and the control group (P=0.032). All tested bone graft materials showed
significantly higher ALP activity than the control (P<0.001). The Tutodent® group showed the best
cell growth among all experimental groups, followed by the Osteon® group. The former had a higher
spindle-like morphology with good attachment to the surface. Cells cultivated on the surfaces of
the Cerasorb® and Bio-Oss® granules had more round morphologies.
Conclusion: This in vitro study demonstrated that all tested BSMs can provide good cell
differentiation but a lower rate of proliferation.
Key Words: Alkaline phosphatase, bone graft, cell culture, cell morphology, cell viability, osteoblast

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