Evaluation of the antibacterial effect of calcium hydroxide in combination with three different vehicles: An in vitro study

Ali Reza Farhad, Behnaz Barekatain, Maryam Allameh, Tahmineh Narimani


Introduction: Antimicrobial activity of interappointment intracanal medications is an important consideration in endodontics. Considering the fact that calcium hydroxide (CH) cannot sterilize the root canal system, completing its antimicrobial spectrum seems necessary. The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial activity of CH combined with three different vehicles in root canal system.

Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, 61 freshly extracted human single rooted teeth were used. After chemo-mechanical preparation, the teeth were dressed with CH in combination with: G1: Distilled water (DW); G2: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite; G3: 0.2% chlorhexidine solution. All teeth were mounted in a 2-chamber apparatus. After sterilization, the coronal chamber was exposed to bacteria and the apical chamber was filled with broth for 90 days. Leakage was recorded when turbidity was observed in broth. Mean times of leakage and turbidity percentage were recorded for each group. Data were analyzed by One Way ANOVA test (a=0.005).

Results: The highest mean time of contamination was for chorhexidine/CH combination (M=66.76 days), and the lowest was for DW/CH combination (M=40.29 days). Statistically significant difference was observed between G3 and G1 (P=0.042), but the difference between G2 and G3 (P=0.76) or G1 and G2 (P=0.18) were not significant. 88.23% of the samples of G1, 70.58% of G2, and 64.70% of G3 were contaminated after 3 months.

Conclusion: As an intracanal medication, the chlorhexidine/CH combination had significantly more antibacterial activity than DW/CH combination.

Key Words: Antibacterial effect, calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine, intracanal medication, sodium hypochlorite

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