Association of temporomandibular joint morphology in patients with and without temporomandibular joint dysfunction: A cone‑beam computed tomography based study

Anuridhi Choudhary, Upasana Sethi Ahuja, Akshay Rathore, Nidhi Puri, Manu Dhillon, Akansha Budakoti


Background: The etiology of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) is complex and associated
with multiple predisposing and initiating factors. Articular eminence morphology and steep eminence
inclination have been postulated as the etiological factors, but there has been no clear evidence
of association of morphology of the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) complex as a probable
predisposing factor in the pathogenesis of TMDs.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross‑sectional, case–control study, and cone‑beam computed
tomography scans, and the evaluation was performed for 60 joints in 30 patients with symptomatic
TMDs and for 40 healthy joints of 20 age‑matched patients. One‑way ANOVA, post hoc, unpaired
t‑test, Chi‑square, and intra‑class correlation coefficient test were used to determine the correlation
between the TMJ articular eminence inclination, height, condylar bone changes, condyle, and fossa
shapes with symptomatic TMDs. The P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: There was a statistically significant difference of articular eminence inclination and height
with a steeper eminence inclination in the control group (P = 0.044*, and 0.035*). The condylar
bone changes were found to be significantly more in the TMJ disorder group (P = 0.001*). There
was no significant association of condyle and fossa shapes (P = 0.482 and 0.689) and of articular
eminence inclination and height with condylar bone changes (P = 0.695, 0.498, 0.192, and 0.823) and
condyle shapes (P = 0.389, 0.521, 0.260, and 0.387). The eminence inclination was not associated
with fossa shapes (P = 0.471 and 0.086), but eminence height was associated with fossa shapes in
the TMJ disorder group (P = 0.043* and 0.111).
Conclusion: The results depicted that there was no significant association between TMJ complex
anatomy and TMJ disorders in the present study population.


Articular eminence inclination, cone‑beam computed tomography, eminence height, pneumatized articular eminence, temporomandibular joint, temporomandibular joint disorder

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